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Note: individual initiatives can only be selected in the MAP tab.

Data last updated August, 01 2020

Note: Carbon pricing initiatives are considered "scheduled for implementation" once they have been formally adopted through legislation and have an official, planned start date. 
Carbon pricing initiatives are considered “under consideration” if the government has announced its intention to work towards the implementation of a carbon pricing initiative and this has been formally confirmed by official government sources. 
Jurisdictions that only mention carbon pricing in their NDCs are not included as different interpretations of the NDC text are possible. The carbon pricing initiatives have been classified in ETSs and carbon taxes according to how they operate technically. ETS does not only refer to cap-and-trade systems, but also baseline-and-credit systems such as in British Columbia and baseline-and-offset systems such as in Australia. Carbon pricing has evolved over the years and initiatives do not necessarily follow the two categories in a strict sense. Due to the dynamic approach to continuously improve data quality, changes to the map do not only reflect new developments, but also corrections following new information from official government sources.

 

Data last updated August, 01 2020

Note: Only the introduction or removal of an ETS or carbon tax is shown. Emissions are given as a share of global GHG emissions in 2012. Annual changes in global, regional, national, and subnational GHG emissions are not shown in the graph. 
If emissions that are covered by multiple carbon pricing initiatives shown in the graph, these are attributed to the carbon pricing initiative that was introduced first. Due to the dynamic approach to continuously improve data quality, changes to the graph do not only reflect new developments, but also corrections following new information from official government sources.

The information on the China national ETS represents early unofficial estimates based on the announcement of China’s National Development and Reform Commission on the launch of the national ETS of December 2017.

Data last updated August, 01 2020

Note: Nominal prices on  
Prices are not necessarily comparable between carbon pricing initiatives because of differences in the number of sectors covered and allocation methods applied, specific exemptions, and different compensation methods. Due to the dynamic approach to continuously improve data quality and fluctuating exchange rates, data of different years may not always be comparable and could be amended following new information from official government sources. In addition, data for a limited number of initiatives may be incomplete as they are in the process of being validated and will be updated following confirmation from official government sources.

Data last updated August, 01 2020

The revenue raised by governments from carbon pricing initiatives was derived from official government accounts and budgets. Where data was unavailable for a certain year, the revenues have been extrapolated based on the carbon price rate. Where data from official government budgets was completely unavailable, the revenues have been estimated by multiplying the GHG emissions covered with the nominal carbon price on April 1 of that year. Due to the dynamic approach to continuously improve data quality and fluctuating exchange rates, data of different years may not always be comparable and could be amended following new information from official government sources. In addition, data for a limited number of initiatives may be incomplete as they are in the process of being validated and will be updated following confirmation from official government sources.

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